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The container shipping industry to change the world
Date:2016-06-16 15:18:17 | Visits:


60 years ago, a hexahedral iron box to overturn the traditional model of world trade and transport.
1956 April 26, a converted tanker had "ideal X" number (Ideal X), in addition to tanks full of oil, coat the deck of standardized containers 58 from Newark, New Jersey departure, the destination is Houston, Texas.
The original scattered in various shapes, different sizes of cartons, boxes, bags, sacks and other goods put into a standardized metal box yard, is a man named Malcolm McLean (Malcom McLean) trucking Regal originality of "brainstorming." Based on careful calculation of McLean, this 35 feet-long containers to shipping, freight an average of $ 5.83 per ton of cargo. Compared to the original traditional mode of transport, the average cost per ton of cargo transport can save 16 cents.
However, the process of internationalization of container transport difficult, until 10 years later, in 1966, the United States land and sea shipping companies (Sea-Land Lines) and US shipping companies (US Lines) opened up the United States to Europe, the first liner routes, forcing Europe liner companies follow. Since then, the containerization became truly international industry.
In 1967, Matson Line (Matson) started the first trans-Pacific liner shipping services. In Rotterdam's first container terminal was born.
McLean sized to 35 feet to accommodate the size of the truck at the time of the development so far, the standard dimension of 20 feet, 40 feet and 45 feet. The United States is the world's only then do not use one unit of length of a few countries "m", whereby the container has been the standard scale of "feet" as a unit, and still in use.
Former editor of "Containerisation International" (Containerisation International) magazine, Richard Gibney then follow the global trend, the "20 feet equivalent units" (twenty-foot-equivalent) as acronyms TEU container units of measurement . Since then, no one then "dwt" (dwt) to measure the size of a ship, while "TEU" has become the standard measure of the size of the unit container ships.
Pioneer McLean persevere, to within a few years he founded in 1960, land and sea services company (Sea-Land Service) to develop a series of new markets. After industry-wide efforts of several generations, so far these containers gradually extends to every corner of the world.
Undoubtedly, containerization significantly to the growth of the contemporary world trade. Hard to imagine that with the last transport system to handle grocery how could meet this demand. In fact, even on the physical challenges of the goods themselves aside, the high tariffs of some goods can make transactions uneconomical.
The end result of the container is effectively reduce transportation costs, eliminating the cost of manufacturing siting concerns. In the era of bulk cargo, shipping accounts for 10% of most manufactured goods destination prices even more. Plus the cargo inland transportation and handling charges, transport costs even higher. But intermodal door to door transport services, so that this proportion dropped to single digits, shipping certain goods dropped even lower ratio. Because the fixed day shift, to further improve the convenience of the schedules using zero inventory (just-on-time) Management System. It can give full play to product development and production of comparative economic advantage, making the production of large-scale shift to Asia, especially China possible.
Needless to say, most of the pioneers in the container shipping industry from the United States. But many of the pioneers in the development process in the industry has "died" the.
Surprisingly, today ruled container shipping industry turned out to be several European giants.
The pyramid spire Maersk Line though is a relatively late entry of carriers, but in a way it maiden voyage and container shipping industry are linked.
Maersk triumphed, the same series of mergers and acquisitions, and which include land and sea and Nedlloyd. Maersk acquisition in 1999 was the world's second-largest container shipping company land and sea services company, and enable the "Maersk Sealand" (Maersk-SeaLand) name until 2006 acquisition of P & O Nedlloyd (Royal P & O Nedlloyd), the company name all collectively referred to as Maersk. SeaLand brand has since been frozen.
Maersk wake up "Sea-Land" in 2014, it's become the Region of the Americas regional trade professional carrier. SeaLand frozen for many years was finally wake up, after all, is lucky. By contrast, now how many people remember the 1990s in the liner shipping industry also had an influential German victory, the British Rail line, several Dutch Java Head "lion"? After their merger, the brand gradually fade out of people's memories, gradually vanished.
 
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